Publish Date: 24.03.2023

Category: News from the University

Photo: PexelsPhoto: Pexels

A study led by the University of California, joined by the University of Ljubljana’s Faculty of Social Sciences (UL FDV), found that pay practices and barriers to promotion are to blame for women earning less than men in the 15 countries analysed. The findings show how new policies could address such problems.

Despite progress in gender equality, women still earn less than men, even in advanced societies. According to an analysis of 15 countries, the reasons for this are structural (in the workplace) and linked to the personal choices of men and women who choose differently paid jobs. The findings, published in the scientific journal Nature Human Behaviour, support the need for action to tackle the gap, focusing on equal pay for equal work and the removal of gender barriers to recruitment and promotion.

After taking into account differences in age, education and full- or part-time work, the researchers found that the gender gap in earnings between people aged 30 to 55 ranged from 10% in Hungary to 41% in South Korea. In Slovenia, the difference is (was*) 19%.

The gender pay gap in Slovenia has widened over the ten years, not only due to processes sorting people into different jobs, but also due to an increase in the gender gap within the same jobs. This means there are differences not only between different employers, but also within the same employer for the same jobs. The researchers for Slovenia were Prof. Dr. Aleksandra Kanjuo Mrčela (UL FDV) and mag. Andreja Poje, a doctoral student in Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Ljubljana.

In December 2022, the Centre for Organisational and Human Resources Research (UL FDV) launched the STEP project. Its main aim is to increase pay transparency and reduce the gender pay gap in Slovenia. The project will analyse the obstacles and opportunities for systemic changes to increase pay transparency, review the practices of EU countries that are leading the way in this area, and prepare a proposal and action plan for the implementation of the Pay Transparency Directive in Slovenia.

Ensuring gender equality is Goal 5 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

More about the research results (Within-job gender pay inequality in 15 countries) is available on this link.

* The data cover a period of 10 years, from 2005 to 2015 for Slovenia.


Nature Human Behaviour

The scientific journal Nature Human Behaviour publishes highly relevant research on all aspects of individual and group behaviour, covering a broad spectrum of social, biological, medical and physical sciences. The scientific contributions published serve as a fundamental contribution to solving society's most pressing challenges.

Centre for Organisational and Human Resources Research at UL FDV

The Centre studies work, people and organisations. Our multidisciplinary team is interested in how labour markets, employment, educational, industrial relations and social partnership systems, economic, non-profit and other organisations operate in today's changing economy and society. We work with excellent researchers from across the country and the world. We are critical in learning about the changes linked to contemporary trends of digitisation and globalisation. We study economic inequalities and the genderedness of work according to various industries.

Agenda for Sustainable Development

In 2015, 193 countries adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the most ambitious global plan ever to tackle poverty, inequality and climate change. The 2030 Agenda comprises 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 sub-goals, building on the previous Millennium Development Goals. Unlike the MDGs, the SDGs are universal and all countries are responsible for achieving them.